How to read a fluorography certificate
A fluorographic study took place, forever, all, and more than once – the Ministry of Health obliges this diagnostic procedure to be performed by all citizens once a year. Without a certificate of fluorography, you will not be admitted to the hospital for planned treatment, you will not be issued certificates of professional suitability, you will not pass a medical examination for the right to drive a car, etc.
Usually you will be given a certificate that says: “Chest organs without pathological changes,” or “Pathology in the lungs not detected,” or “Within age-related changes.” This means that the lungs are fine. If any changes are found in the image, they will still be given a certificate, but specific deviations from the norm will be indicated in it. In serious cases, the patient is referred for additional examinations.
Strengthening of the pulmonary (vascular) pattern. Pulmonary, or vascular, pattern called the shadow of arteries and veins in the picture. Its strengthening means that an increased blood supply is observed in the area of the lung. The reason for this can be quite harmless, for example, acute viral infection, bronchitis, pneumonia. After recovery, the pulmonary pattern returns to normal. But a similar picture can also indicate serious diseases: the initial stage of cancer, tuberculosis. In this case, the study is often prescribed again. Almost always, the pulmonary pattern is enhanced with congenital heart defects, heart failure, mitral stenosis. But, as a rule, with these diseases there are a number of serious symptoms. Therefore, if there are no other manifestations of heart disease, and the doctor does not refer you for an additional examination, you can not worry – there is nothing to worry about.
The roots are densified. The roots of the lung include the main bronchus, bronchial and pulmonary arteries, pulmonary vein, lymph vessels and lymph nodes. Sealing of the roots indicates the transition of the process to a chronic form. This is possible if edema of large vessels has occurred, lymph nodes have increased, which happens with pneumonia or bronchitis. In smokers, the roots are always compacted, even if there are no signs of the disease.
The roots are heavy. This symptom indicates an inflammatory process in the lungs, acute or chronic: chronic bronchitis, smoker’s bronchitis. The same picture, along with other signs, is observed in bronchiectasis, occupational lung diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Fibrous tissue. The fibrous tissue in the lungs shown in the picture indicates past diseases – pneumonia, tuberculosis, as well as surgery. The presence of fibrous tissue in the lungs is not dangerous.
Adhesions, pleuroapical layers. Adhesions are connective tissue formed after inflammation in order to isolate the focus of inflammation from healthy tissue. There is no danger. Pleural-apical layers are called pleural thickening. Most often, pleuroapical stratifications appear after the inflammatory process. Not dangerous.
Calcifications. These are deposits of calcium salts in the area of the lung. As a rule, calcifications form at the points of contact with mycobacterium tuberculosis. And not necessarily due to illness. Calcium salts can also be formed simply by contact with the carrier of the infection. If the immunity is strong, then the lesion is delimited from the surrounding tissues, and then calcified. In the same way, foci are isolated when infected with worms, with pneumonia, in the presence of a foreign body in the lungs. Calcifications in the lungs are not dangerous.
Foci. This is a darkening of the pulmonary field up to 1 cm in size. The foci in the lower and middle sections indicate focal pneumonia. In the presence of an enhanced pulmonary pattern and uneven edges of the foci, an active inflammatory process is very likely. The more even and dense foci speak of the subsidence of inflammation. If the upper sections are affected by the foci, we can talk about tuberculosis.
Loose and sealed sinuses. The pleural sinuses are voids formed by pleural folds. Normally, they should be free, a sealed sinus may be the result of trauma, past pleurisy or another disease. Exudation in the sinus, that is, the accumulation of fluid in it, is a symptom of many diseases, therefore, with this picture, additional examinations are necessary.
The expanded or displaced shadow of a mediastinum. The mediastinum is the space in the middle of the chest cavity. It contains the aorta, heart, esophagus, trachea, lymph nodes and blood vessels, and the thymus gland. The expansion of the shadow of the mediastinum, usually on the one hand, indicates an increase in the heart, its left or right parts. The expansion of the mediastinum to the left (expansion of the heart to the left) for the most part speaks of hypertension. Uniform expansion is possible with heart failure, myocarditis. Mediastinal displacement occurs with increased pressure on one side. Most often this happens with unilateral accumulation of air or fluid in the pleural cavity, with a significant tumor in the lung tissue.